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Case Law Reader

Since South Africa's emergence as a refugee receiving country a large body of jurisprudence has developed. The below Case Law is aimed to be a repository for such cases for academic and litigation purposes.

With your assistance we can continue to expand the Case law Reader. We accordingly invite you to contact the Refugee Rights Unit at refugeelawclinic@uct.ac.za.

2015

Constitutional Court

None available

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

Minister_of_Home_Affairs_v_SASA_(PE_Closure)

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Flynote: Refugees Act 130 of 1998 - Closure of refugee reception office - Decision challenged for want of consultation with interested parties and rationality - Remedy - Authorities ignoring previous court orders.

 

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Bolanga vs The Refugee Appeal Board and Others

Court: Kwazulu Natal High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Reviewing and setting aside the Refugee Appeal Board to rejection the applicant's asylum claim as unfounded - Directed that the applicant be granted formal refugee status.

Tshiyombo vs The Refugee Appeal Board and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Reviewing and setting aside the Refugee Appeal Board to rejection the applicant's asylum claim as unfounded - Directed that the applicant be granted formal refugee status.

Akanakimana v The Chairperson of the Standing Committee and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Reviewing and setting aside the decisions of the Standing Committee and the RSDO to rejection the applicant's asylum claim as manifestly unfounded - Substitution - Directed that the applicant be granted formal refugee status.

Mayemba v SCRA and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgment - reviewing decision of Standing Committee to reject applicant's application for asylum as manifestly unfounded - decision reviewed and set aside - applicant may submit a fresh application in accordance with s 21 of Refugee Act.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

2014

Constitutional Court

None available

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

Somali Association of South Africa v Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Flynote: Asylum seekers and refugees' entitlement to apply for licences to trade in spaza and tuck-shops - no blanket prohibition against self-employment either in terms of the Constitution or applicable legislation - s 22 of the Constitution not a bar - right to dignity implicated - vulnerable position of asylum seekers and refugees considered - South Africa's international obligations noted.

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Consortium for Refugees and Migrants is South Africa v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others (Nyamwasa exclusion case)

Court: North Gauteng High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Reviewing and setting aside the decisions of the Standing Committee and the RSDO to rejection the applicant's asylum claim as manifestly unfounded - Substitution - Directed that the applicant be granted formal refugee status.

Hussein and Another v The Additional Magistrate, Cape Town and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Order - Urgent matter Rule 6(12) - Detention - Immigration Act 13 of 2002 - Decision to confirm warrant of detention reviewed and set aside - Respondents directed to release as soon as reasonably possible - Applicant directed to attend Refugee Reception Office within 14 days and apply for asylum.

Makumba v Minister of Home Affairs and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Review of rejection as manifestly unfounded - Refugees Act 130 of 1998 - Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000 - Whether Applicant was informed of her right to make written submissions to the Standing Committee for Refugee Affairs - Not the duty of a Refugee Status Determination Officer to inform an applicant of the grounds on which they could apply for refugee status - Applicant omitted true reasons for fleeing - The decision was correctly made on the evidence before the Refugee Status Determination Officer - Whether exceptional circumstances present permitting substitution - Remedies - Principle of non-refoulement - Whether there is an obligation to reconsider new evidence - Credibility of the Applicant - Decision set aside and remitted to the Refugee Status Determination Officer.

South African Human Rights Commission and Others v Minster of Home Affairs and Others

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Immigration Law - detained at detention centre as illegal foreigners - applicant sought an order declaring respondents' detention of 19 applicants and other detainees unconstitutional and unlawful - applicants detained longer than was legally allowed in terms of the Immigration Act - detention declared unconstitutional and unlawful - respondents' directed to take reasonable and all necessary steps to ensure unlawful practices are terminated.

Somali Association of South Africa and others v Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism

Court: North Gauteng High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Whether right to work includes right to operate a business - S 10 Right to dignity - S 22 right to freedom of trade, occupation and profession interpreted to exclude non-citizens - Justifiable limitation to the application of s 22 - The Refugees Act 130 of 1998 could not have intended an interpretation that is unconstitutional - Rights of asylum seekers and refugees distinguished.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

2013

Constitutional Court

Minister of Home Affairs v Scalabrini Centre, Cape Town (735/12 & 360/13) [2013] ZASCA 134 (27 September 2013)

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Attorneys: LRC, LHR, UCT Refugee Rights Clinic & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Refugee Reception Office - Closure - Review of the decision - Whether "administrative action" - Whether consistent with doctrine of legality.

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Harerimana v Chairperson, Refugee Appeal Board and Others

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Administrative law - Administrative action - Review - Discretion of court - Remedies - Substitution - Whether present case exceptional one in which court may substitute administrator's decision with its own - Administrator opposing review of its decision - Opposition creating appearance of bias - Unfair to remit matter to it - Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, s 8(1)(c)(ii) - Immigration - Refugee - Refugee Appeal Board - Review - Board opposing review of its decision - Board's opposition creating appearance of bias - Consequently unfair to remit matter to it - Court substituting its own decision for that of Board - Refugees Act 130 of 1998.

Scalabrini Centre, Cape Town and Others v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (11681/12) [2013] ZAWCHC 49; 2013 (3) SA 531 (WCC); [2013] 2 All SA 589 (WCC); 2013 (7) BCLR 819 (WCC) (19 March 2013)

Court: Western Cape High Court

Attorneys: LRC, LHR, UCT Refugee Rights Clinic & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Final relief - Reviewing and setting aside the decision to close the Cape Town Refugee Reception Office to new applications for asylum after 29 June 2012 - Directing that the Department ensure that by 1 July 2013 a Refugee Reception Office is open and fully functional within the Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality at which new application for asylum can be made.

Rahim and Others v Minister of Home Affairs (2777/2010; 3707/2010) [2013] ZAECPEHC 34 (9 July 2013)

Court: Eastern Cape High Court

Attorneys: McWilliams & Elliott Inc & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Whether plaintiffs constitute illegal foreigners - Whether prison or police cell a place determined by Director-General for foreigners' detention.

Power v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (2013/14516) [2013] ZAGPJHC 146 (13 June 2013)

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Attorneys: Mafuwane MJ Attorneys & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Judgement - Detention for the purposes of deportation - Length of detention - Refugee Status - Exclusion.

Lukombo v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (2013/13552) [2013] ZAGPJHC 142 (13 June 2013)

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Attorneys: Mkata Attorneys & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Detention for the purposes of deportation - Fraudulent identities given to the Department.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

2012

Constitutional Court

None available

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

Ndikundavyi v Valkenberg Hospital and others

Court: Labour Court, Cape Town

Attorneys: UCT Refugee Law Clinic

Flynote: Foreign Health Professional - Discrimination on the basis of nationality - Termination of employment on the basis that permanent contract void ab initio in light of policy of national health department.

Scalabrini v Minister of Home Affairs, Order of 25 July 2012

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Somali Association for South Africa v The Minister of Home Affairs (1)

Court: High Court, Eastern Cape Division, Port Elizabeth

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney.

Flynote: Refugee Reception Office - Closure of - Director-General need consult Standing Committee before disestablishing an Office.

Ssemakula and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Attorneys: Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town; State Attorney.

Flynote: Refusal to issue asylum permit without possession of an asylum transit permit - Proof of existence of policy - Vulnerable group - Declaratory relief.

Katabana v The Chairperson of the Standing Committee for Refugee Affairs and others (WC) unreported, Case No. 25061/2011 (14 Dec. 2012)

Court: Western Cape High Court

Attorneys: UCT Refugee Rights Clinic & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Reviewing and setting aside the decisions of the Standing Committee and the RSDO to rejection the applicant's asylum claim as manifestly unfounded - Substitution - Directed that the applicant be granted formal refugee status.

Dorcasse v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (2012/17771) [2012] ZAGPJHC 184; 2012] 4 All SA 659 (GSJ) (5 October 2012)

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Attorneys: Gamede Attorneys & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Release from detention - Refugee Appeal Board Quarum.

Sikuola v Minister of Home Affairs and Others

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Urgent relief sought - Detention - Immigration Act 13 of 2002 - Unlawful detention in excess of 30 days - Onus on person detaining to justify extensions - Immediate release ordered.

Otshudi v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (12/05018) [2012] ZAGPJHC 15 (23 February 2012)

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Attorneys: Mzamo Attorneys & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Detention for the purposes of deportation - Asylum claim rejection upheld by RAB - Having exhausted internal remedies and no further proceedings pending - falls to be dealt with in terms of the provisions of the Immigration Act - Contempt of court - minister and officials prevented from deporting illegal foreigner whilst proceedings pending as they may be guilty of contempt of court - Detention pursuant to s 34 of Immigration Act - calculation of initial period of 30 days and extended period of 90 days to be cumulative Suspension of 120 day period allowed by Act for detention for purposes of deportation in the event of legal proceedings preventing Department from deporting illegal foreigner.

S v Gavric (A138/2012) [2012] ZAWCHC 161 (23 May 2012)

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgement - Extradition - Bail - Asylum application.

Ngona v Minister of Police (9198/2010) [2012] ZAWCHC 325 (8 October 2012)

Court: Western Cape High Court

Flynote: Judgement - Identification - Failure to produce documents - Whether reasonable suspicion that plaintiff was an illegal foreigner - Whether police took reasonable steps to assist in the verification process - Unlawful detention.

 

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

 

None available

2011

 

Constitutional Court

 

None available

 

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

 

Bula and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney; Eversheds, Johannesburg.

Flynote: Intention to apply for asylum - If detained individual indicates intention to apply for asylum, he is entitled to be freed and to be issued with permit valid for 14 days, in which he must approach refugee reception office to complete asylum application - Individual need not indicate intention immediately on encountering immigration officials - At reception office, it is for refugee reception officer to assist individual to complete application, which is given to refugee status determination officer to decide.

Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa and others v Minister of Home Affairs and others (Joburg Closure case)

Court: North Gauteng High Court

Flynote: Judgment - Refugees Act 130 of 1998 - Refugee Reception Office - Closure - Whether made decision to close - Review of the decision - Decision not to establish a refugee reception office is "administrative action" - PAJA applicable.

Fikre v The Minister of Home Affairs and others (2)

Court: High Court, South Gauteng Division

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney.

Flynote: Review of detention -Continued detention pending outcome of condonation application - Whether justified.

Katshingu v The Standing Committee for Refugee Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Attorneys: UCT Refugee Law Clinic

Flynote: Administrative law - Substitution of Decision - Lawfulness - Procedural fairness - Interpretation services - Judicial notice of UNHCR reports - s 3(b) claim.

Phale v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, North Gauteng Division

Attorneys: Pretoria Law Clinic; State Attorney.

Flynote: Immigration - Illegal alien - Warrant of arrest - Validity.

Bhuiyan and Others v Minister of Home Affairs and Another (2585/2011, 2599/2011) [2011] ZAECPEHC 40 (15 September 2011)

Court: Eastern Cape High Court

Attorneys: Jogee Ahmed Attorneys, McWilliams & Elliott Inc & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Application for release from detention - Decision later overturned by the SCA in Ersumo v The Minister of Home Affairs and others.

Tsebe and Another v Minister of Home Affairs and Others, Phale v Minister of Home Affairs and Others (27682/10, 51010/10) [2011] ZAGPJHC 115; 2012 (1) BCLR 77 (GSJ); [2012] 1 All SA 83 (GSJ) (22 September 2011)

Court: South Gauteng High Court

Attorneys: Maci Attorneys & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgement - Extradition - Risk of death penalty being imposed.

Arse v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney.

Flynote: Asylum seeker permit - On grant of, recipient ceasing to be illegal foreigner - Allows holder to 'sojourn' - This disallowing detention - Minister may not proceed against individual who has applied for asylum until decision made on his application or his rights of review or appeal exhausted.

Aruforse v Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, South Gauteng Division

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights

Flynote: Detention of foreigner - Lawfulness.

City of Cape Town v The Bluewater Site Residents

Court: High Court, Cape of Good Hope Provincial Division

Flynote: Displaced persons - Xenophobic attacks - Temporary Safety Sites - Eviction - PIE application and procedures - Particularly vulnerable group - Unlawful occupation.

Hassani and another v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, South Gauteng Division

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney.

Flynote: Detention - Deportation - Arrest while transiting to England -Facilitation of application for asylum.

410 Voortrekker Road Property Holdings CC v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Flynote: Interdict - Suspension - Interdict granted against government parties in breach of zoning laws and land use restrictions - Government parties using premises in question as refugee reception centre - Government parties obliged to establish refugee reception centres.

President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Quagliani, President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Van Rooyen and Another; Goodwin v Director-General, Department of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others

Court: Constitutional Court

Attorneys: Errol Goss Attorneys; Davout Wolhuter and Associates; State Attorney; Wertheim Becker Inc.

Flynote: Extradition - extradition agreements - requirements for an extradition agreement to be validly concluded -Extradition Act 67 of 1962- International law - Requirement of section 231(4) of the Constitution that an international agreement be enacted into domestic law by national legislation in order to take effect -Separation of powers - between the Legislature and the Courts - procedural failures by a legislature.

Jeebhai and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and another

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Attorneys: Zehir Omar Attorneys; State Attorney; Wits Law Clinic as attorneys for the Amicus Curiae.

Flynote: Immigration - Illegal foreigners - Arrest, detention and deportation of - Without a warrant - When permissible - Immigration Act 13 of 2002 - Permissible where - Sections 8 and 41(1) - Detention - Detention pending removal from Republic - Section 34 - Review and appeal procedures - Section 8 - Non-compliance - Whether non-compliance with such procedures rendering detention unlawful - Contempt of court.

Bhati v Minister for Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Eastern Cape Division, Port Elizabeth

Attorneys: Maci Inc.; State Attorney.

Flynote: Application for asylum rejected - Temporary residence permit - Failure to establish renewal.

Kiliko and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and others (2)

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Attorneys: Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town; State Attorney.

Flynote: Structural interdict - Return report on progress.

Thomasso and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and others, Settlement Agreement

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Attorneys: UCT Refugee Law Clinic

Flynote: Extension of permits from other offices - refusal agreed to be unlawful.

S v Daribo [2009] ZAFSHC 60 (21 May 2009)

Court: Eastern Cape High Court

Attorneys: Ungerer Struwig Minnaar & Peo & The State Attorney's Office

Flynote: Judgment - Offence in terms of the Refugees Act - Review of sentence.

 

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

 

Discovery Health Ltd v CCMA and others

Court: Labour Court, Johannesburg

Flynote: Contract of employment - Unlawful contracts - Employer terminating contract with foreigner after learning he was working without permit - Contract, though unlawful, not void ab initio and termination constituting dismissal - Foreigners - Foreigner employed without work permit an employee, and entitled to all rights afforded employees under labour legislation and Constitution.

Khan v Immigration Officer Kimberly Region

Court: High Court, Northern Cape Division

Attorneys: Jooste Attorneys; State Attorney.

Flynote: Detention - Deportation.

Ngoho v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Attorneys: Moki van Huyssteen & Botes Inc.; State Attorney.

Flynote: Administrative action - Deportation - Illegal foreigner - Fraudulent residence permit - No case for release - Application dismissed.

Akwen v Minister of Home Affairs

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Flynote: Immigration Act - Detention - Confirmation - Extension of 90 days.

Mayongo v The Refugee Appeal Board and others

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; State Attorney.

Flynote: Past Persecution - Medical evidence - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - Compelling reason to refuse to avail oneself of the protection of the country of origin.

Van Garderen N.O. v The Refugee Appeal Board and others

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Flynote: Judicial review - Standard of proof - "Real risk" test too high - Appellant must establish a reasonable degree or possibility that his fear is well founded.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

2006

Constitutional Court

Fang v The Refugee Appeal Board and others

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Attorneys: Pretoria Law Clinic; State Attorney.

Flynote: Administrative action - Political asylum - Well-founded fear of persecution - Onus of proof - Objective and subjective elements - No proof of actual persecution.

Kiliko and others v The Minister of Home Affairs and others (1)

Court: High Court, Western Cape Division

Attorneys: Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town; State Attorney.

Flynote: Duties of State - Protection of fundamental rights of asylum seekers - Duty to provide adequate facilities to receive, consider and issue asylum seeker permits - Consequences of asylum seeker's status as 'illegal foreigner', and bureaucratic procedures adopted by Department of Home Affairs, violating asylum seeker's fundamental rights - Human rights - Foreigners entitled to same rights under Constitution as citizens, provided contrary intention not emerging from Constitution.

Rutimba and Others v Director Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority and Others (35986/03) [2006] ZAGPHC 55 (26 May 2006)

Court: Gauteng Provincial High Court

Attorneys: LHR & The State Attorney's Office.

Flynote: Judgment - Security Regulation Authority - Application of refugees to be registered - Review of refusal of applications and/or withdrawal of certificates of registration.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

2005

None available

2004

Constitutional Court

Lawyers for Human Rights and another v The Minister of Home Affairs and another

Court: Constitutional Court

Attorneys: Watters Attorneys; Larson Falconer Inc.

Flynote: Illegal foreigner - Definition - Physical presence in South Africa - Entitled to constitutional rights - Irrespective of whether here legally or not.

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

None available

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Centre for Child Law and another v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: High Court, Transvaal Provincial Division

Attorneys: Lawyers for Human Rights; Pretoria Law Clinic; State Attorney.

Flynote: Urgent application - Unaccompanied foreign children detained at the Lindela Repatriation Centre - Children held together with adults - Deportation interdicted - Rights of the Child - Curator ad litem appointed.

Minister of Home Affairs and others v Watchenuka and another

Court: Supreme Court of Appeal

Attorneys: State Attorney; Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town.

Flynote: Right to human dignity - Freedom to engage in productive work important component of human dignity - Right to education, s 29(1) of Constitution - Freedom to study inherent in human dignity enshrined in s 10 of Constitution - Right to education not absolute, and capable of being limited in appropriate circumstances, for State cannot be obliged to permit any person to enter country and then to remain in order that he/she may exercise such right - But, where person concerned is child who is lawfully in country to seek asylum, no justification for limiting right so as to deprive him/her of opportunity for human fulfilment at critical period.

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Kabanga and another v South African Airways and others

Court: High Court, Witwatersrand Local Division

Attorneys: Riaan Louw; State Attorney.

Flynote: Immigration - Prohibited person - Persons attempting to enter Republic without valid passport and visa - Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991 - Sections 11(1), read with 11(3) - (5), 6(1), 7(1), 9(1) and 52(1).

Minister of Home Affairs v Liebenberg

Court: Constitutional Court

Attorneys: State Attorney.

Flynote: Legislation - Validity of - Regulations promulgated under Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991 - Confirmation of declaration of invalidity - Ministers exercise no more than subordinate, delegated authority when making regulations under Acts of Parliament or performing other ministerial duties - Regulations thus not Acts of Parliament.

Dawood and another v The Minister of Home Affairs and others

Court: Constitutional Court

Attorneys: UCT Legal Aid Clinic and the Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town.

Flynote: marriage - right to marry and right to family life - despite the absence of a specific constitutional guarantee protecting family life, section 10 of the Final Constitution guaranteeing the right to human dignity protects the right of individuals to enter into a marriage relationship and to sustain such a relationship.

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

None available

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

None available

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

1999

None available

1998

Constitutional Court

None available

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

None available

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Larbi-Odam and others v The Member of the Executive Council for Education (North-Western Province) and another

Court: Constitutional Court

Attorneys: A.K. Ahmed; State Attorney; Webber, Wentzel, Bowens as attorneys for the Amicus Curiae.

Flynote: Discrimination Regulation regarding the Terms and Conditions of Employment of Educators - Limited to citizens - Discrimination - Unfair Discrimination against permanent residents - Citizenship - Characteristic of personhood not alterable by conscious action - Foreign citizens - Minority group with little political muscle.

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

None available

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

None available

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available

1996

Constitutional Court

None available

Supreme Court of Appeal / Labour Appeal Court

None available

High Court / Labour Court / Equality Court

Pembele and others v The Appeal Board for Refugee Affairs and others, Order of 10 December 1996

Court: High Court, Cape of Good Hope Provincial Division

Attorneys: Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town; Friedlander Shandling & Volks.

Flynote: Written reasons for any adverse decisions.

Court: High Court, Witwatersrand Local Division

Flynote: Immigration - Removal from the Republic in terms of s 44 of Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991 - Detention of person in terms of s 44 - Application for interdict de homine libero exhibendo for person's release - Conduct of officials of Department of Home Affairs and of police - Such officials of department cannot take steps to deprive person of liberty and then place themselves, even bona fide, beyond reach of administration of justice when required to justify detention.

Magistrates Court / Equality Court

None available